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Základné informácie o záverečnej práci
|Mapovanie zmien zrnitostných frakcií piesočnatých pôd vplyvom veternej erózie v krajine|
|doc. Ing. Lenka Lackóová, PhD.|
|Pracovisko:||Katedra krajinného plánovania a pozemkových úprav (FZKI)|
prof. RNDr. Juraj Hreško, PhD.
doc. Ing. Jana Kozlovsky Dufková, Ph.D.
Stav záverečnej práce:
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Jazyk spracovania záverečnej práce:
|Názov práce:||Mapping of changes in grain fraction of sandy soils erroded by wind in agricultural landscape|
One of the major threats to European soils is their degradation due to soil erosion by wind and water. Erosion is one of the major threats to arable soils with profound ecological and economical consequences. While data on soil erosion by water are more frequently available within Europe, the current knowledge about spatial extent and amount of wind erosion is limited. This is especially true for Slovak conditions where, to the knowledge of the author, just few real measurements on amount of wind erosion have been reported so far. Areas that are most susceptible to wind erosion are located in western and south easter-parts of Slovakia. Climate (primarily wind speed and precipitation), soil characteristics, the state of the soil surface and field length are the most important factors that determine the extent of wind erosion. To mobilize the most susceptible soil particles wind speed has to exceed 6 m.s-1 (10 m height). Based on terrain measurements performed under Slovak conditions, threshold wind velocity for particles movement ranged from 5.0 to 5.9 m.s-1, maximum minute wind velocity was 12.3 m s-1 and maximum wind blast was 17.3 m s-1. The susceptibility of a soil to wind erosion depends on its aggregation and aggregate stability as affected by its texture, organic matter and moisture content. The rapid and accurate estimation of soil loss by wind erosion still remains challenge. The method estimates the soil loss by wind erosion based on a comparison of the historical and present content of sand, silt and clay particles in the surface (up to 5 cm) layer of the farmland areas threatened by wind erosion. The content of historical grain size distribution was analyzed from the records of Complex Soil Survey from years 1961 - 1970 provided for the purposes of this thesis by Soil Science and Conservation Research Institution. These data were compared with the outcomes of panEuropean survey of soil (2011), which can by downloaded from the JRC website. To refine the results, we performed in the years 2015 to 2016 own mapping of grain size distribution in 8 cadastral areas (Kostolište, Láb, Lozorno, Malacky, Plavecký Štvrtok, Borský Svätý Jur, Kuklov, Kúty a Močenok). It is based on the features that on the surface layer, wind erosion causes the relative numbers of erodible and non-erodible particles to decrease and increase, respectively. However, fewer studies have quantitatively linked wind erosion to detailed grain-size fractions. In this study, we examined the effects of enhanced wind erosion on surface soil particle-size distribution in long term duration. The combined consequences of future climate change may, therefore, further increase wind erosion in these regions. In this wind susceptible environment, our findings suggest that significant soil texture change (e.g., the loss of soil fines) driven by wind erosion could happen rapidly and soil fine particles (e.g., silt and clay) may be depleted within a few years. One of the direct consequences of wind erosion is the loss of soil and associated soil nutrients through saltation for particles < 0,50 mm and vertical emission of finer particles. Our results indicate that the soil surface became within 46 years muchrougher, but in most of the areas influenced by the erosive effect the accumulation of fraction of the silt particles occured. Analysis of changes in the frequency of occurrence of soil types in the observed time horizon indicates a growing trend of soil types from a strong representation of dust particles (silt, silt loam). The method of calculations of total volume of eroded particles in the cadastral Močenok we have demonstrated that there is accumulation of about 31228 m3 and 16236 m3 deflation soil material from this area. Total transported amount of soil material was about 14922 m3 (5.5 cm height).
wind erosion, grain fraction, sandy soils
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