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Základné informácie o záverečnej práci
Fytochemikálie a mykotoxíny vo vzťahu k produkčným ukazovateľom králikov
|Oponent 1:||prof. Ing. Juraj Mlynek, CSc.|
|Oponent 3:||prof. MVDr. Peter Turek, PhD.|
|Stav záverečnej práce:||Záverečná práca bola úspešne obhájená|
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Jazyk spracovania záverečnej práce:
|Názov práce:||Phytochemicals and mycotoxins in relationship to productive parameters of rabbits|
The global occurrence of mycotoxins is considered to be a major risk factor for human and animal health. Contamination of different agricultural commodities with mycotoxins still occurs despite the most strenuous prevention efforts. As a result, mycotoxin contaminated feed can cause serious disorders and diseases in farm animals. A number of approaches, such as physical and chemical procedures, have been used to counteract mycotoxins. However, only a few of them have practical application. A recent and promising approach to protect animals against the harmful effects of mycotoxin contaminated feed is the use of substances for reduction of the contamination of feed by mycotoxins. The promising approach against the harmful effects caused by mycotoxins is using the polyphenolic compounds. Natural substances are used as active compounds in the treatment of various problems and diseases. The synergic effect of mycotoxins and flavonoids is being studying for last years. The aim of our work focused on evaluation of effect of increasing doses of flavonoids (quercetin, epicatechin) on parameters of metabolic profile and the meat quality of rabbits after exposure of mycotoxins (T2 toxin, patulin). For achievement of the aim the selected analyses regarding blood and muscles (Musculus longissimus dorsi) were chosen. In the first experimental intervention adult rabbits (n=30) maternal albinotic line (crossbreed New Zealand white, Buskat rabbit, French silver) and paternal acromelanistic line (crossbreed Nitras rabbit, Californian rabbit, Big light silver), were divided into control group (C) and experimental groups (E1 E5). Experimental groups received quercetin in injectable form at 10 microgram.kg-1 in E2 and E3 groups, 100 microgram.kg-1 in E4 and E5 group for 90 days. T2 toxin (Romer Labs Division Holding GmbH, Tulln, Austria) to E1, E3, E5 group at dose 0.08 mg per kg of body weight 72 hours before slaughter was applied. The blood samples were used for biochemical analyses (mineral profile, energy profile, lipid profile). The blood serum was separated from whole blood by centrifugation (30 min. 3000.min.-1). Biochemical parameters of mineral profile (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) were determined by Microlab 300 (Merck, Germany) and by microprocessor EasyLite (natrium, potassium, chlorides) (Medica, Bedford, MA, USA). To analyse parameters of energy profile (glucose, total proteins), lipid parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides) and enzymatic profile (alanine aminotransferase ALT, aspartate aminotransferase AST) clinical analyser Microlab 300 (Merck, Germany) was used. The values of HDL and LDL cholesterol were measured using commercial kits by GENESYS 10 (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., USA) at wavelength 600 nm. Slaughter weight was analysed by electronic scales (KERN PLE 42002N) and the weight of organs of carcass body by electronic scales (ACSA) with precision 0.01 kg (both experiments). Meat quality was analyzed from a sample of Musculus longissimus dorsi for the content of water in muscle, content of proteins, fat, energy, electric conductivity, pH, colour and content of bounded water. The value of pH was detected by injection analysis. The content of water, proteins and fat was analyzed using Infratech 1265 Meat Analyser. Meat colour was detected by spectrophotometer (Specol 11) and the meat ability to bind water by pressure method. The samples were analysed for the concentration of macroelements (phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium) and microelements (zinc, copper and manganese) using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) method. A reaction with a solution of molybdenum and vanadium (Microchem, Pezinok, Slovakia) was performed before the spectrophotometric method for determination of phosphorus. In combined groups E3 and E5 the significant increase in AST and ALT (P<0.05) when compared to other groups was found. The significant decrease (P<0.05) of TAG in the groups with higher dose of quercetin and in combination with T2 toxin application in comparison with other groups was noticed. By evaluation of technical and processing parameters the significantly higher values of erubescence a among the groups with higher dose of quercetin in combination with T2 toxin in comparison with the group with higher dose of quercetin and insignificant (P>0.05) increase in combined group with lower dose of quercetin and T2 toxin in comparison with the group with lower dose of quercetin at unchanged pH were found. In the second experimental intervention adult rabbits (n=24) maternal albinotic line (crossbreed New Zealand white, Buskat rabbit, French silver) and paternal acromelanistic line (crossbreed Nitras rabbit, Californian rabbit, Big light silver) were used in the experiment. Animals were divided into six groups: control group (C) and experimental groups E1, E2, E3, E4 and E5. Animals from experimental groups E1, E3, E5 received patulin (Sigma Aldrich Chemie, Germany) through intramuscular injection (10 microgram.kg-1) twice a week and animals from groups E2, E3 (10 microgram.kg-1) and E4, E5 (100 microgram.kg-1) received epicatechin three times a week through intramuscular injection. Experiment lasted 30 days. In blood serum after the centrifugation (3000 speed for 30 min.) the parameters of mineral profile, energy profile (glucose, total cholesterol, total proteins, lipid profile triglycerides, total cholesterol, enzymatic profile ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase ALP, gamma glutamyl transferase GGT) were determined by automatic clinical analyser RX Monza (Randox, United Kingdom). Natrium, potassium and chlorides were analysed by the same method as previously described. After 30 days animals were slaughtered, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were collected. The meat samples were collected one hour after slaughter, wrapped in aluminium foil and stored at 4oC for 24 hours. Meat quality was analysed from a sample of Musculus longissimus dorsi (50 g) for parameters characterizing the content of nutrients (content of water, content of proteins, fat, content of amino acids and fatty acids) and processing technology parameters (content of electric conductivity, pH, colour). The value of pH (24 hour post mortem) was detected by portable battery acidometer OP109. Instrumental colour measurements were recorded for L (lightness; 0: black and 100: white), a (redness/greenness; positive values: red and negative values: green), and b (yellowness/blueness; positive values: yellow and negative values: blue) using a spectrophotometer CM2600d (Osaka, Japan). As it was a wet surface on the sample, we evaluated the colour with shine (SCI). The content of water, proteins, fat and fatty acids were analysed by method FT IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) using Nicolet 6700 (Pragolab s.r.o.). Content of amino acids was detected using gas chromatography capillary (CGC), electron capture detector (ECD), nitrogen-phosphorus detectors NPD (Germany). The electrical conductivity defined locations of muscles were evaluated using PMV 51 (mS.cm-1). In the group with higher dose of epicatechin the significant decrease (P<0.05) of glucose was detected. Nonsignificant decrease (P>0.05) in the group with higher dose of epicatechin in combination with patulin when compared to other groups was found. In combined group with higher dose of epicatechin the significant decrease (P<0.05) of LDL when compared to other groups were measured. In the group with lower dose of epicatechin the significant decrease (P<0.05) of cholesterol was noticed. In the groups with higher dose of epicatechin and in combination with patulin application the significant decrease (P<0.05) of pH values when compared to other groups was found. In the group with higher dose of epicatechin the significant increase (P<0.05) of electric conductivity in comparison to other groups was found. Erubescence a of samples was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the experimental groups in comparison to the control. The value of colour b (yellowing) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the group with higher dose of epicatechin when compared to other groups. The concentration of copper was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the groups with higher dose of epicatechin and patulin in comparison with the group with the patulin application and with the group with lower dose of epicatechin and patulin. The content of manganese was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the group with higher dose of epicatechin and patulin in comparison to the control. Research on the field of interactions among phytochemical and mycotoxin in animal bodies and the questions of safety levels can also have a positive impact on the safety of food and will be worthy of further investigation.
|quercetin, epicatechin, T-2 toxin, patulin|
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|Posudky záverečnej práce neobmedzene|